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          According to belief in Nakhchivan, everything or every animated object has its owner. It is called “owner”. The collected materials prove that according to belief of nation, mountain, stone, water, tree and bush also have owner.


       During investigating parallels of the belief, it was known that Sibir and Altay Turks also have the same belief. It was called “ichchi” among Yakut people and “echi”, “yechi”, “yey’” among other Turk peoples. While investigating tree kult, the meaning why people tie the fabric to trees and bushes around “”Ashabi-Kahf” and other places for pilgrimage was also studied.


         Comparative researches show that other Turkish peoples including Anadolu Turks also have this belief. In several places for pilgrimage, there was the habit to tie fabric to trees and bushes. Similarly Sibir and Altay peoples tie the fabric to trees for the purpose to satisfy owner of the tree. This has character for sacrifice of tree.


       Yakut people call the fabric and coarse calico tied to trees as “sarama”. Yakut people who consider the tree alive as human applause the tree. We can see the similar applause and capability of human to get in touch with tree in “Kitabi-Dada Gorgud”. Tree kult also takes the important place in ancient Shumer epos “Bilgamis”.


         Sanctity of the tree has also widely spread in eposes of Turks in Middle Asia. This shows that Turkish people consider the tree as mother and productivity symbol. It is not accidental that mythical trees, which are called as life tree, exist among several peoples of the world. According to notions, those trees give eternal life to human and cure illnesses. Their fruits, branches and leaves are life giving.


       According to ancient notions, holiness of the tree means its having underground and surface life. It means the part inside the ground – the underground part of the roots means death, but the surface one this world, renovation and life. According to the belief of Siberia Turks, there is a holy tree in the middle of globe. It rises to the God. Mirali Seyidov says that the life tree is in the top of mountain: “The life trees usually used to grow in the top of or not far from the mountain and rock. Thus, man wanted to create stronger belief by combining the belief in mountain with the belief in world tree”.


       Besides the world tree, life fruit is the main part of the system of belief of the Azerbaijani Turks. The apple means life fruit, symbol of health in our tales and eposes. The tale “Melikmammad” deals with the youth apple growing in the garden of padishah and the events connected with it. It means that when dervish or a holy man gives an apple to you, you will be free from childlessness


.      One of the interesting matters is to determine the genesis of belief related with tying different pieces of material and coarse calico to the trees and shrubs in “Ashabi-Kahf”. To note that, there is a belief in tying rages to the trees and shrubs not only in “Ashabi Kahv”but also around some sanctuaries. There is a tradition of tying rages pear-tree near the sanctuary called “Duyma Guyusu” in Almammad sacred place (near Jamaldin village), pear-tree in Havush sacred place, ergot shrub in “Pir Suleyman” sepulcher in the village of Tenenem, as well as ergot shrub in called “Salatin piri”, shrub around the Arafsa sacred place. The comparative investigations show that, this belief is spread among all the Turkish peoples not depending on their religious views.


        Famous investigators, such as N.A.Alekseyev, A.B.Anoxin, L.P.Potapov, L.Y.Chanchibayeva, Abdulgadir Inan and others being engaged in research of systems of religion and beliefs of the Turks, considering the trees alive, link this with the belief of having protective spirit (master). N.A.Alekseyev writes that, it is to make sacrifice for this spirit.          In ancient Turks thought, tree and forest are holy things mainly affecting on human life. The Turks believed that if they satisfy their master, they would live in happiness, abundance and luxury. The investigations show that, the rages shouldn’t be tied to every tree at all.


        It is tied only to the trees (even the name of tree must be clear) in mountain passages in holy places. According to the information of S.I.Rudenko, the Bashkirs tied rages to the trees and shrubs in the tops for mountain spirits. This is called “saprak”. The Yakut call it “salama”, “sarama”, but the Altai “salam”, “yalama”. The trees are distinguished according to their holiness. The maples are holy for Siberia and Altai Turks, but the birch, carcass for Middle Asia.          The carcass is considered holy in “Ashabi-Kahf”. It must be noted that there were many carcass trees here until the eighties of the last century.


The persons visiting the sanctuaries used its fruits as a medicine in different diseases. The beads made from carcass were hung on clothes or neck of the little children to protect them against being evil eyes and some diseases. According to the belief spread among people: “The carcass tree shouldn’t be broken. Because you may be damned. It is difficult to free yourself from this curse. If you break it you should hang it over your dress against evil eyes”.    

     The same belief is spread among the Turkmen. G.P.Vasilyeva writes that, the most effective amulet used to be made from carcass. This amulet, being called as “carcass” is usually hung on children’s neck in the early period of their diseases and isn’t taken out till the end of their lives. 


         The juniper tree, being used for the purpose of treatment, is always considered holy for its greenness in Nakhchivan. It is sin to break it. Analogically, besides its medical characteristics, the Altai use its smoke in order to turn evil spirits out of the houses, men and animals. Like Azerbaijani Turks, the Siberian and Altai Turks consider that evil spirits, ill-intentioned men are afraid of thorny plants.


         For the purpose of wish, to tie the rages is widely spread among karkuks (Iraqi Turkmen). There is a great belief in another tree known under the same name in Sere/Suvare area. In this connection, Yashar Kalafat writes: “There is a hole inside the tree. Passing through the tree the persons having no children, believe that they will have children. The men having children tied the rages to the tree and killed as a scarify”. Some of plane trees are holy for Middle Asian Turks. G.P.Vasilyeva notes that, the plane tree is considered holy near the Kiz Bibi. Especially the women visit that plane tree and arrange an assembly under it in order to free themselves from childlessness and disease.


         At the same time, they tie the rages to the branches of the plane. If the wish is great then the meeting is great too. The author says that it is done in the honor of the woman by name Hami-Kiz-Bibi. The Crimean Turks consider the plane holy.


      There was a strong belief in old planes.          People in Nakhchivan, especially in Ordubad consider the planes holy. It is not accidental that there are plane trees in the yard of mosques and some sanctuary in Ordubad. It is said among people: “The place where the plane trees are, is considered to be holy”. There was a big tree in front of mosque until the seventies of XX century in Ordubad. It was said that, at these times sheikh Nizami had been here and sat under this tree.


      There was writing on the trunk of the tree about concerning the XI century. When the mosque was destroyed and there was built a new cultural house instead of it, the tree became dry. Besides it, there is a great respect to the black trees in the yard of mosque in Nakhchivan. Generally, the belief connected with black tree is widely spread in Nakhchivan. Arguing about this belief, H.A.Guliyev and A.S.Bakhtiyarov write: “There have been two black trees at a distance from each other near Nakhchivan recently. The people called them “twins”. They say that, these trees are connected with each other by means of underground roots.


       There was a young birch-bark near one of these trees (on the way to Yarimja village) that was called the son of old birch –bark. Afterwards the around of this tree became a big grave-yard called “Khuda divan”. According to the legend famous among the people, who take even the straw of this tree, he or she will catch malaria”.


      When blessing and wishing, to touch the head of bride with a little branch of the tree bearing fruit, is connected with fertility. According to the above-mentioned we can come to conclusion that, belief in tree conveying the common Turkish character from the genetic point of view had been formed in ancient times. The ancient Turkish family preserved those beliefs related with that tree considering it life-giving, vital force.  Sanctity of the tree is in its surface and underground life.


      That is to say, the underground part of the tree – root represents the death and the surface part of the tree represents the world, renovations and life. According to belief of Sibir Turks, There is a sacred tree in the middle of globe. This tree rises up to God. Mirali Seyidov shows that the world (life) tree is mainly situated in the top of the mountain:


       “The world trees were mainly growing in the top of the mountain and at the rock. According to this, human wanted to create more strong belief by combing belief for tree and the world tree with mountain belief, mountain God (owner)”. Together with life tree, the life fruit also takes the important place in the belief system of the Azerbaijan Turks. In our tales and eposes, apple is considered as life fruit and health symbol.


      “Malikmammad” tale was dedicated to youthfulness apple grown in the yard of padishah and incidents happened with this. In tales, it is possible to be exempted from endlessness by means of apple given by a sacred human. One of the interesting matters is to determine the genesis of belief related to ting of fabric to trees and bushes in “Ashabi-Kahf”. We have to note that the belief to tie fabric to trees is not only in “Ashabi-Kahf” in Nakhchvan territory but also in other places for pilgrimage.      


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